When should a girl make her first visit to the gynaecologist?

A girl, regardless of age, should make her first visit at the beginning of her sexual life.

- How often should I visit the gynaecologist?

If there is no problem such as menstrual disorders or any discomfort in the sensitive area, such as itching, burning, or pain, it is recommended once a year to do the annual check up, a gynaecological examination, a Smear test and an ultrasound.

What are the necessary tests to be done by age?

The annual Smear test should be done from the beginning of a girl’s sex life and for as long as she is sexually active regardless of age. Prevention includes the ultrasound of the internal genitals and the palpation of the breast.

A breast ultrasound is recommended at any age if there is a palpable finding and it is considered routine from the age of 35 in combination with mammography. The first mammogram can be done from the age of 35 – 40 years to be available as a reference examination and for a comparative examination with the next ones that will follow.

From the age of 40, it is recommended to be examined every year or at the latest every 2 years depending on the history and texture of the breast. In the period of menopause, the bone density measurement to prevent osteoporosis is added.

Why is the Smear test important and until what age should it be done?

The Smear test is a cytological examination of the cervix; it is an important test because it can diagnose simple benign conditions but mainly prevent and detect precancerous lesions of the cervix, that is malformations that can develop into cervical cancer.

The Smear test starts with the beginning of the woman’s sexual life and continues every year for as long as she is sexually active.

Should I get the cervical cancer vaccine and at what ages can I be vaccinated?

The cervical cancer vaccine has been included in the mandatory vaccination since the age of 9 years and for all ages, mainly up to 26 years, where the immune system responds better and produces the necessary antibodies for these viruses.

What is the HPV?

The HPV is a group of viruses (Human Papilloma Virus), papillomatous – papillary viruses, that are transmitted through sexual contact and remain in the body almost for life. They are responsible for cell damage causing both precancerous and cancerous lesions. Recently, they have been associated with cancerous lesions of the oropharynx and intestine.

Do I have to use a sanitary pad every day?

It is not necessary but can be used in case of many secretions, while choosing the appropriate one. It is often not recommended for some women when they develop dermatitis or local allergic manifestations.

Should I use a special cleaning product for the sensitive area?

Proper hygiene of the sensitive area is very important as vaginal secretions and sebum are collected in the area from the sebaceous glands resulting in predisposition to the growth of fungi and germs.

Plenty of water and choosing a suitable mild antiseptic fluid with the right pH depending on age is essential in daily hygiene without abusing the amount and frequency during the day.

Why is the use of a condom important?

The use of a condom is important both for contraception but mainly for the prevention of transmission and disease from sexually transmitted diseases.

What are polycystic ovaries?

In fact, this is a syndrome. The Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), which in its classic form presents amenorrhea, hirsutism, obesity and acne. It is a hormonal disorder due to ovarian dysfunction which show many small follicles.

Ovulation is not normal and more androgens are produced which are responsible for the onset of the syndrome. Polycystic ovary imaging can be seen on ultrasound without necessarily indicating that it is a case of the syndrome. Hormonal testing is always combined allowing the verification of the disorder. It is associated with infertility, with metabolic disorders but also with benign conditions in the long run if left untreated.

When does menopause begin?

On average, menopausal disorders appear at the age of 45, and menopause – the cessation of menstruation at the age of 50. It is individualized based on the history and biological status of the woman.

Early menopause occurs rarely from the age of 35 and much less rarely from the age of 20.

Menopause means the cessation of the period and is officially delimited when a woman does not have a period for a year.

Is treatment necessary for menopause?

Hormone replacement therapy, i.e. hormonal treatment that results in a steady period each month in the menopausal period or hormonal support in menopause, is administered on a case by case basis depending on the accompanying symptoms that may affect the woman’s quality of life such as hot flashes, mood swings. psychological fluctuations, tachycardia, increased blood pressure, decreased libido, severe osteopenia or osteoporosis.

Can a pregnant woman travel?

She may travel as long as the pregnancy progresses normally without any complication or vaginal bleeding. The safest means is considered to be the airplane.

Is sexual intercourse allowed during pregnancy?

Typically, as long as the pregnancy does not present any complications such as bleeding and contractions, it is allowed, obviously at a reduced frequency. In the first trimester it is best to be avoided, in the second trimester contraception should be used as sperm contains prostaglandins and can cause premature birth, in contrast to the third trimester, where free frequent contact is recommended when we expect a normal birth exactly for the sake of prostaglandins, which are substances that help for better conditions of the cervix for the progress into a normal birth.

Is exercise allowed in pregnancy?

In a normally developing pregnancy, exercise is almost required, as it helps to strengthen the musculoskeletal system of the pregnant woman by better supporting the uterus to better handle the period of pregnancy, while also helping for a better progress of the normal childbirth.

Exercise lowers blood sugar levels thus reducing the risk of developing diabetes, improves the vascular and circulatory system by reducing the risk of high blood pressure, improves respiratory function and increases physical endurance by reducing the feeling of fatigue and mood swings, helps in preserving proper body weight and metabolism, while exercise also produces endorphins which give the pregnant woman a sense of well-being and calmness.

What is a nuchal translucency scan?

Ultrasound measurement of the space at the back of the neck where a certain amount of fluid normally appears. Depending on the width-thickness of the measurement, if it exceeds the normal limits depending on the week (11th – 13th) it has been associated with the risk of Down syndrome.

It is a statistical assessment and not a diagnosis that is evaluated in combination with the age of the woman and a special haematological examination – biochemical markers of the first trimester free βHcG, PAPP-A. The reliability of the nuchal translucency scan reaches 60%, while in combination with the testing of biochemical indicators and age, it reaches 80%.

What is a Level 2 ultrasound?

It is the basic ultrasound examination of the second trimester from the 21st -24th week, where the foetus has developed satisfactorily to study the individual systems for possible pathological conditions related to both congenital anomalies and chromosomal abnormalities.

When should special tests be performed in case of non-conception?

After six months of intensive efforts without pregnancy results, it is good for the couple to visit the gynaecologist for information on the necessary tests in order to investigate and diagnose sub-fertility and give the correct medical direction and guidance for the desired conception.